LED Manufacturing Technologies 2008 market report

Jan. 19, 2008
Date Announced: 19 Jan 2008 LED Manufacturing 2008 is a totally new 189-page report on the technology and market aspects of UHB LEDs, written by EPIC and Yole Développement. It includes key debates and discussions from the 2007 EPIC Industry Workshop on LED manufacturing.Breaking the Profit-barrier with Ultra-High Brightness LEDs LED component volumes have been driven mainly by mobile phone sales recently, showing an incredible annual compound growth rate of more than +45% per year. Due to the strong pressure on component prices, revenue growth has been moderate: only +8% over the last 2 years. “It is now clear that LED market needs to expand into new and profitable sectors with higher margins. We believe that this growth will come from 3 additional application areas: automotive lighting, architectural lighting and general illumination, in addition to the LCD backlighting market.” says Philippe Roussel senior analyst at Yole Développement, in charge of Compound Semiconductor activity. To capture the profits in these application sectors, significant improvements are needed in LED performance, especially in $/lumen and in Lumens/Watt at full power. New approaches manufacturing technologies are required at all levels: materials, design, front-end, back-end and packaging, in order to profit from the potential of Ultra-High Brightness LED: UHB-LEDs. More power and efficiency leads to higher margins and profits EPIC Secretary General Tom Pearsall points-out: “Recent announcements from LED manufacturers show very impressive results on the lm/W efficiency parameter. (150 lm/W has been proved in laboratory), but only at low-current (<20mA) low-power operation. The difficulty in obtaining both high power and high efficiency simultaneously underscores the immediate need for dramatic improvements in manufacturing technologies. Today, no more than 70 lm/W has been demonstrated with high-power LEDs (> 1 Watt). In other words, LEDs still lag behind the performance of fluorescent lamps for general lighting applications. Today high power LED are generating on the average 75% heat versus only 25% light. Several parameters have to be dramatically improved like: Internal Quantum Efficiency Electrical losses Extraction efficiency Phosphor conversion and optics quality This report describes 10 key manufacturing technologies, in use or under investigation that considerably improved the LED optical output power among: New substrate materials Laser Lift-Off Temporary Bonding Transparent top contacts Binning Surface Texturing Phosphor composition and deposition … A new business model is needed to market LEDs for general illumination LEDs have a natural advantage in automotive outdoor and backlighting, but a new business model is needed to penetrate the general lighting sector where fluorescent light remains a strong competitor. Today the incandescent lighting business generates revenues because 30% of the installed base is replaced every year and the manufacturing infrastructure has been amortized for many years. Industry needs to solve the challenge of building a growing market of lighting products with a quasi-infinite lifetime while developing mass production methods for the next-generation of UHB-LED About Epic EPIC: The European Photonics Industry Consortium EPIC’s mission is to build sustainable growth for European Photonics Industries. Membership is open to all organisations that are engaged in photonics engineering that have a presence in Europe . Table of Contents GlossaryExecutive summaryLED market main metrics and main players - Market segmentation - LED market volume as a function of LED type - LED market revenues as a function of LED type - LED 2006 applications breakdown - 2001-2012 GaN LED market - Average retail price of conventional packaged LED - Estimated worldwide blue LED capacity by region in million units - Major worldwide players and related position on the value-chain: Europe, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, North AmericaGeneral Illumination Market - Worldwide estimation of generated lumens (lm.hr/year) - Evolution of white LEDs needs for general lighting - Market estimation for White-LEDs for general illumination - Wafers needs for general illumination (2” equivalent wafers, million units) Projection systems and light-engines - Introduction: Definition of a light engine - Products which require a light engine - Light engines market forecast 2006-2011 - Market introduction roadmap for light-engine-based products - Light engine roadmap for displays - Digital Cinema Projectors market - Conclusions: What light sources for projection displays: LED or LD? Current status of the LED performance and related technologies p44 - Number of lm requested for various applications and related time-to-market for mass production - Main manufacturing steps and related options for GaN-based LED - Examples of current LED companies process flow-chart - LED: lateral or vertical structure - GaN-LED: Emitting colour as a function of In concentration - Global LED efficiency is the ratio of the final luminous output power over wall-plug power - Internal QE has now reached ~73% for low power LED (I=20mA)… - … but this value significantly drops as the current (so the power) increases ! - How is the input power dissipated? Average LED optical output power vs heat generation at different current levels - Extraction efficiency (?extr.) is strongly linked to the die size…. - Different options to optimize LED performance - Expected efficiency gains for the future white power LED generation - Influence of selected improvements on the four key efficiency parameters - The perfect white LED would include…New LED manufacturing techno. to enhance luminous efficiency p60 - Various techniques to improve white LED efficiencyNew growth substrates for nitride LEDs p62 - Sensitivity to dislocations density in the active layer for optical nitride devices - Estimated volume of substrates for GaN-based LED production (SiC & Sapphire) 2005-2012 - 2006 sapphire substrates market for LED: price, units and diameter analysis - 2005-2012 Sapphire substrates market volume for LEDs by diameter & related market value - 2005-2012 Sapphire substrates market value for LEDs, segmented by diameter - 2005-2012 SiC wafer diameter evolution for GaN/SiC LED production - 2005-2012 SiC substrates market volume for LEDs by diameter & related market size - Sapphire substrates main manufacturers - Different substrates for GaN epitaxy - GaN substrates / applications matrix - Conclusion: Tentative time-to-market of various substratesPhotonic crystals and textured surfaces surfaces - Goal of the LED surface modification: enhance light extraction and directional emission - Photonic crystal vs. Surface texturing - Photonic crystals: the principle - Example of photonic crystals based LED Luminus PhlatLight® - Nano-imprint lithography, a key technology for photonic crystal LEDs - Photonic crystals LEDs: New developments - Photonic crystals LEDs by Laser Holography - ConclusionLaser Lift-Off (LLO) & Flip-Chip p85 - LLO Technique: definition - OSRAM LED chip technology (ThinGaN® technology) - LLO equipments - LLO technique & Flip chip mounting - The flip-chip mounting: transparent substrates only! - Flip-chip can be coupled with back-face contact reflector technique - Schematic fabrication process for wafer-bonded transparent substrate AlGaInP/GaP LEDsTransparent top contacts with ZnO Temporary Bonding - Temporary bonding: introduction - Thin wafer handling: different solutions - Temporary bonding: principle - Main temporary bonding methods comparison - Temporary bonding using wax - Temporary bonding using adhesive tapes - Example of EVG and TEL temporary bonding toolsDicing and Scribing - Definition - Techniques, Throughputs and costs - Number of dies / wafer - Laser Scribing & Dicing - Diamond Scribing & Dicing - Example of JPSA, NWR, Synova and Oxford Laser toolsBinning - Binning: Definition - What is Binning? - Binning: the criteria - Binning must prioritize on only one parameter to achieve a proper yield - Binning: conclusionsPatents and licenses status in the LED business: The phosphor battlefield - Patent is part of global IP - “The NICHIA story”: 1995 – 1999 - Some Examples of the GaN LED patent situation - Main agreements and cross-licenses in LED business - US and Asia remain the most active regions in LED patents - EU patents status - Ranking of the most active companies in LED technology patents - Main phosphor-related patents from various manufacturers - Main phosphor technologies in use - Main phosphor suppliers - ConclusionsUV-LED and bulk-AlN: The future of white LEDs? - Introduction - What are UV wavelengths ? - UV emission wavelength depends on the Al content in the AlGaN alloy - Why bulk AlN to make UV LEDs? - Current UV-LED state-of-the-art - Main initiatives in AlN bulk single crystal developments - Tentative roadmap for 2” AlN single crystal market price & useable area - Example of current available offers in AlN substrates - ConclusionThe ’’Green Gap’’ - Introduction: green is missing… - Why green wavelengths so hard to get? - ConclusionsLED lifetime: new business models are needed… - Long lifetime can be a market driver for adoption but not a money maker for light source vendorsGeneral conclusions Annexes: Company profiles - CREE - Philips Lumileds - OSRAM


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